Proximate Composition and Energy Value Analysis of Five Varieties of Malting Barley
International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology
Volume 4, Issue 2, June 2019, Pages: 35-39
Received: May 3, 2018;
Accepted: Jun. 1, 2018;
Published: May 8, 2019
Views 332 Downloads 89
Cecilia Castillo, Genetic Resources and Productivity-Seed Production Program, Postgraduate College Montecillo Campus. Texcoco, México
Gabino García, Genetic Resources and Productivity-Seed Production Program, Postgraduate College Montecillo Campus. Texcoco, México
Adrián Hernández, Genetic Resources and Productivity-Seed Production Program, Postgraduate College Montecillo Campus. Texcoco, México
Mauro Zamora, National Barley Breeding Program, National Institute of Research in Forestry, Agriculture and Livestock (INIFAP), Valley of México Experimental Station, Texcoco, México
Malting barley is an important crop in the world due to its high nutritional value that imparts great benefits to health. The aim of this study was to evaluate the proximate analysis and energy value of five varieties of barley malting of Mexican origin. Results showed that malting barley varieties have on average high amounts of total carbohydrates (76.84%), protein (12.47%), fiber (5.65%), fat (2.67%), ash (2.36%), and moisture (10.34%) and provide lots of energy to humans. Although the five varieties have the same nutrients, each variety stands out for its particular characteristics. The Esperanza variety had a higher value of carbohydrates, considering it important for nutrition and the malting industry. The Esmeralda variety showed high protein content; this parameter is significant for the feed industry and human nutrition. Armida is the variety with the highest fat content and at the same time provides greater amount of energy. The varieties with higher fiber content and ash were Adabella and Alina, respectively.
Proximate Composition and Energy Value Analysis of Five Varieties of Malting Barley, International Journal of Food Science and Biotechnology.
Vol. 4, No. 2,
2019, pp. 35-39.
Newman, C. W. and Newman, R. K. (2006). A brief history of barley foods. Cereal Foods World, 4-7.
Riahi, E. and Ramaswamy, H. S. (2003). Structure and composition of cereal grains and legumes,” In: Handbook of postharvest technology: cereals, fruits, vegetables, tea and spices, G. S. Vijaya, A. Chakraverty, A. S. Mujumdar, Eds. Marcel Dekker, New York.
McKevith, B. (2004). Nutritional aspects of cereals. British Nutrition Foundation, Nutrition Bulletin, 29: 111-142.
Edney, M. J., O´Donovan, J. T., Turkington, T. K., Clayton, G. W., Mckenze, R., Juskiw, P., Lafond, G. P., Brant, S., Grant, C. A., Harker, K. N., Johnson, E. and May, W. (2012). Effects of seeding rate, nitrogen rate and cultivar on barley malt quality. Journal Science Food and Agriculture, 92 (13): 2672-2678.
Cabrera, D. F. M., González, M. S., Juárez, M. A., Leija, M. P. and Benavides, M. A. (2018). Plant Nutrition and Agronomic Management to Obtein Crops with Better Nutritional and Nutraceutical Quality. In: A. Grumezescu and A. M. Holban. (Eds.). Therapeutic Foods. Handbook of Food Bioengineering (vol. 8, pp. 99-140). San Diego, United States. Academic Press In.
Sarwar, M. H., Sarwar, M. F., Sarwar, M., Qadri, N. A. and Moghal, S. (2013). The importance of cereals (Poaceae: Gramineae) nutrition in human health: A review. Journal of Cereals and Oilseeds, 4 (3): 32-35.
Koehler, P. and Wieser, H. (2013). Chemistry of cereal grains. In: M. Gobbetti and M. Gänzle (Eds.). Handbook of Sourdough Biotechnology (pp. 11-45). Springer, Boston, MA.
Papageorgiou, M. and Skendi, A. (2018). Introduction to cereal processing and by-products. In: C. M. Galanakis (Ed.). Sustainable Recovery and Reutilization of Cereal Processing By-Products (Fisrt Edition, pp. 1-25). Cambridge, United Kingdom. Woodhead Publishing Ltd.
Faostat, (2014). FAO Statistics Division. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Das, M. and Kaur, S. (2015). Status of barley as a dietary component for human. Research & Reviews. Journal of Food and Dairy Technology, 25-30.
Baik, B. K. and Ullrich, S. E. (2008). Barley for food: Characteristics, improvement, and renewed interest. Journal of Cereal Science, 48 (2): 233-242.
AOAC, (2005). Official Methods of Analysis of AOAC International. 18th Edition, AOAC International, Gaithersburg, USA.
Ali, S., Nazir, S., Usman, S., Nasreen, Z., Kalsoom, U. and Inam, T. (2014). Study on the biochemical effects of barley fiber on the hypercholesterolaemic rats. African Journal of Plant Science, 8 (5): 237-242.
Serna-Saldivar, S. O. (2012). Cereal Grains. Laboratory Reference and Procedures Manual. CRC Press, Taylor & Francis Group.
FAO. (2002). Food energy – methods of analysis and conversion factors. Report of a technical workshop. FAO Food and Nutrition Paper No. 77. Rome.
SAS Institute. (2002). Statistical Analysis System Version 9. 0. North Carolina, USA.
Taruvinga, C., Mejia, D. and Sanz, J. (2014). Appropiate Seed and Grain Storage Systems for Small-scale Farmers. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations.
Atici, O., Agar, G., and Battal, P. (2007). Influence of long term storage on plant growth substance levels, germination and seedling growth in legume seeds stored for 37 years. Indian Journal of Plant Physiology, 12 (1): 1-5.
Batey, I. (2017). Maintaining Grain Quality During Storage and Transport. In: C. Wrigley, I. Batey and D. Miskelly. Cereal Grains. Assessing and Managing Quality (Second Edition, pp. 571-590). Australia. Woodhead Publishing.
FAO. (2011). Rural structures in the tropics. Design and development. Rome.
Afzal, I., Bakhtavar, M. A., Ishfaq, M., Sagheer, M. and Baribusa, D. (2017). Maintaining dryness during storage contributes to higher maize seed quality. Journal of Stored Products Research, 72: 49-53.
Nonogaki, M and Nonogaki, H. (2017). Germination. In: B. Thomas, D. J. Murphy and B. G. Murray (Eds.). Encyclopedia of Applied Plant Sciences (Second Edition, Vol. 1, pp. 509-512). Amsterdam, Boston. Academic Press.
Zhu, F. (2017). Barley Starch: Composition, Structure, Properties, and Modifications. Comprehensive Reviews in Food Science and Food Safety, 16: 558-579.
Jacob, A. G., Etong, D. I. and Tijjani, A. (2015). Proximate, Mineral and Anti-nutritional Compositions of Melon (Citrullus lanatus) Seeds. British Journal of Research, 2 (5): 142-151.
Sharif, R. H., Paul, R. K., Bhattacharjya, D. K. and Ahmed, K. U. (2017). Physicochemical characters of oilseeds from selected mustard genotypes. Journal of the Bangladesh Agricultural University, 15 (1): 27-40.
Maphosa, I. and Jideani, V. A. (2017). The Role of Legumes in Human Nutrition. In: M. Chavarri. Functional Food. Improve Health through Adequate Food (pp. 103-109). Croatia. InTech.
Åman, P., Hesselman, K. and Tilly, A. C. (1985). The variation in chemical composition of Swedish barleys. Journal of Cereal Science, 3 (1): 73-77.
Wilczewski, E. (2014). Content of macroelements and crude fiber in grain of spring barley cultivated in different agronomic conditions. Acta Scientiarum Polonorum, Agricultura, 13 (1): 73-83.
Šterna, V., Zute, S. and Jâkobsone, I. (2015). Grain composition and functional ingredients of barley varieties created in Latvia. Proceedings of the Latvian Academy of Sciences, 69 (4):158-162.
Hashemi, J. M. (2015). Biomedical Effects of Barley-A Review. New York Science Journal, 8 (3): 52-55.
USDA, (2018). Food Composition Databases. Available from: http://ndb.nal.usda.gov (2 May 2018)
Kumari, R. and Kotecha, M. (2015). Physicochemical and nutritional evaluation of Yava (Hordeum vulgare Linn.). International Research Journal of Pharmacy, 6 (1): 70-72.