Correlation Between the Preparation Methods and the Structural Morphologies of Organometallic Halide Perovskite Thin Films
Colloid and Surface Science
Volume 4, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 7-12
Received: Mar. 15, 2019;
Accepted: Apr. 22, 2019;
Published: May 11, 2019
Views 136 Downloads 23
Mwende Mbilo, Department of Physics, School of Pure and Applied Sciences (SPAS), Pwani University, Kilifi, Kenya
Agumba Onyango John, Department of Physics, School of Pure and Applied Sciences (SPAS), Pwani University, Kilifi, Kenya
Fanuel Keheze Mugwang’a, Department of Physics, School of Pure and Applied Sciences (SPAS), Pwani University, Kilifi, Kenya
Organometallic halide perovskites are emerging as a promising class of materials for optoelectronic and electrical applications. The degree of molecular ordering that depends on nucleation and growth processes can tune their morphological structure which in turn affects the resultant optical, electronic and electrical properties. Studies have been carried out in this area of research, to some degree, but not conclusive. A systematic study on how the preparation method determines the various morphologies of the resultant perovskite thin films is thus necessary. This work presents a study that was carried out to assess the relationship between different deposition methods and the resulting morphologies of organometallic halide perovskite thin films. In this study, single step solution deposition method, two step solution deposition method and two step drop casting solution deposition methods were used to prepare the perovskite thin films. Concentration, annealing temperature, blade coating speed and dipping times were varied during perovskite deposition processes and the optical micrographs of the prepared films obtained using Zeiss Axio 100 optical microscope fitted with AxioCam 105 color camera. Significant difference in morphologies of the structures prepared using different deposition methods was observed. This observable difference in morphologies may be related to the molecular order of the film structures.
Agumba Onyango John,
Fanuel Keheze Mugwang’a,
Correlation Between the Preparation Methods and the Structural Morphologies of Organometallic Halide Perovskite Thin Films, Colloid and Surface Science.
Vol. 4, No. 1,
2019, pp. 7-12.
A. T. Barrows, A. J. Pearson, C. K. Kwak, A. D. F. Dunbar, A. R. Buckley, D. G. Lidzey, Efficient planar heterojunction mixed-halide perovskite solar cells deposited via spray-deposition, Energy Environ. Sci. 7 (2014) 2944–2950.
M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, Efficient planar heterojunction perovskite solar cells by vapour deposition, Nature 501 (2013) 395–398.
N. Park, Perovskite solar cells : an emerging photovoltaic technology, Biochem. Pharmacol. 18 (2015) 65–72.
Y. Rong, L. Liu, A. Mei, X. Li, H. Han, Beyond Efficiency: the Challenge of Stability in Mesoscopic Perovskite Solar Cells, Adv. Energy Mater. 5 (2015) 1501066.
S. Kazim, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, S. Ahmad, Perovskite as light harvester: A game changer in photovoltaics, Angew. Chemie - Int. Ed. 53 (2014) 2812–2824.
J. L. Barnett, V. L. Cherrette, C. J. Hutcherson, M. C. So, Effects of Solution-Based Fabrication Conditions on Morphology of Lead Halide Perovskite Thin Film Solar Cells, Adv. Mater. Sci. Eng. 2016 (2016) 1–2.
J. M. Frost, K. T. Butler, C. H. Hendon, Atomistic Origins of High- Performance in Hybrid Halide Perovskite Solar Cells, Nano Lett. 14 (2014) 2584–2590.
H. J. Snaith, Perovskites: The Emergence of a New Era for Low-Cost, High-Efficiency Solar Cells, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4 (2013) 3623–3630.
H. Yu, F. Wang, F. Xie, The role of chlorine in the formation process of methyl ammonium lead triodide perovskite, Adv. Funct. Mater. 24 (2014) 7102–7108.
W.-J. Yin, T. Shi, Y. Yan, Unique Properties of Halide Perovskites as Possible Origins of the Superior Solar Cell Performance, Adv. Mater. 26 (2014) 4653–4658.
F. Hao, C. C. Stoumpos, R. P. H. Chang, M. G. Kanatzidis, Anomalous band gap behavior in mixed Sn and Pb perovskites enables broadening of absorption spectrum in solar cells, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 (2014) 8094–8099.
S. T. Ha, X. Liu, Q. Zhang, D. Giovanni, T. C. Sum, Q. Xiong, Synthesis of Organic-Inorganic Lead Halide Perovskite Nanoplatelets: Towards High-Performance Perovskite Solar Cells and Optoelectronic Devices, Adv. Opt. Mater. 2 (2014) 838–844.
S. Luo, W. A. Daoud, Crystal Structure Formation of CH3NH3PbI3-xClx Perovskite, J. Mater. 123 (2016) 2–4.
B. Cohen, S. Gamliel, L. Etgar, Parameters influencing the deposition of methylammonium lead halide iodide in hole conductor free perovskite-based solar cells, APL Mater. 081502 (2014) 1–9.
A. Ummandisingu, M. Gratzel, Revealing the detailed path of Sequential deposition for metal halide perovskite formation, Sci Adv. 4 (2018) 1-6.
J. Avila, C. Momblona, P. P. Boix, M. Sessolo, H. J. Bolink, Vapor-Deposited perovskites: The route to high performance solar cell production, CellPress. 1 (2017) 431-442.
Y. Tidhar, E. Edri, H. Weissman, D. Zohar, Crystallization of methyl ammonium lead halide perovskites: Implications for photovoltaic applications, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136 (2014) 13249–13256.
E. Horváth, M. Spina, Zs. Szekrényes, Nanowires of lead-methylamine iodide (CH3NH3PbI3) prepared by low temperature solution-mediated crystallization, Nano Lett. 14 (2014) 1–11.
W. Deng, X. Zhang, L. Huang, Aligned Single-Crystalline Perovskite Microwire Arrays for High-Performance Flexible Image Sensors with Long-Term Stability, Adv. Mater. 28 (2016) 2201–2208.
T. Y. Hsieh, C. K. Huang, T. Sen Su, C. Y. Hong, Crystal Growth and Dissolution of Methylammonium Lead Iodide Perovskite in Sequential Deposition: Correlation between Morphology Evolution and Photovoltaic Performance, ACS Appl. Mater. Interfaces. 9 (2017) 8623–8633.
Y. Chen, M. He, J. Peng, Structure and growth control of organic–inorganic halide perovskites for optoelectronics: From polycrystalline films to single crystals, Adv. Sci. 3 (2016) 7–8.
M. R. Ahmadian-Yazdi, F. Zabihi, M. Habibi, Effects of Process Parameters on the Characteristics of Mixed-Halide Perovskite Solar Cells Fabricated by One-Step and Two-Step Sequential Coating, Nanoscale Res. Lett. 11 (2016) 6–7.