Interleukin 4 (IL-4) in Urinary Schistosomiasis as a Diagnostic Biomarker During Its Reinfection- A Review
International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences
Volume 3, Issue 5, September 2017, Pages: 57-60
Received: Aug. 16, 2017; Accepted: Sep. 5, 2017; Published: Oct. 10, 2017
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Aigbogun Edwin Ighodaro, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Mohammed Sani Sambo Datsugwai, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Umar Nabeela Bello, Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Science, Kaduna State University, Kaduna, Nigeria
Afangide Christopher Stephen, Zamani College, Kaduna, Nigeria
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Urinary schistosomiasis is caused by Schistosoma heamatobium worm and it is most common source of haematuria (blood in urine) worldwide. This disease has long been recognized as serious public health to man especially in countries like Nigeria, Egypt, with currently more than 790 million people at risk. Since IL-4 stimulates IgE production, the hypothesis that Helper T cell 2 (Th2) associated with cell immunity participate in protection to reinfection in an anti-inflammatory dichotomy manner. IL-4 confers proliferation of T cells, induction of class switching immunoglobulins and also serve as a biomarker in co association with IL-5 for (Th2). The aim of this review paper is to simplify the immunological mechanism that happens when Schistosome worm elicit strong humoral and cellular response in definite host.
Helper T Cell, Schistosomiasis, Interleukin 4, Immunoglobulin
To cite this article
Aigbogun Edwin Ighodaro, Mohammed Sani Sambo Datsugwai, Umar Nabeela Bello, Afangide Christopher Stephen, Interleukin 4 (IL-4) in Urinary Schistosomiasis as a Diagnostic Biomarker During Its Reinfection- A Review, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Medical Sciences. Vol. 3, No. 5, 2017, pp. 57-60. doi: 10.11648/j.ijcems.20170305.11
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This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
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