Intestinal Parasites in Dogs and Humans, Environmental Egg Contamination and Risk of Human Infection with Zoonotic Helminth Parasites from Dog in Hosanna Town
International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research
Volume 7, Issue 1, June 2019, Pages: 24-36
Received: Feb. 12, 2019;
Accepted: Mar. 14, 2019;
Published: Apr. 13, 2019
Views 89 Downloads 30
Yimer Mulugeta, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Moti Yohannes, College of Agriculture & School of Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Deneke Wolde, College of Medicine & Health Science, Wachemo University, Hosanna, Ethiopia
Mesfin Aklilu, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Baye Ashenefe, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Daselgn Gebree, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Fantu Lombamo, Department of Public Health, St. Paul’s Hospital Millennium Medical College, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Gutu Kitila, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Garoma Getahun, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Asefa Deressa, Directorate of Bacterial, Parasitic & Zoonotic Diseases Research, Ethiopian Public Health Institute, Addis Ababa, Ethiopia
Hail Degefu, College of Agriculture & School of Veterinary Medicine, Jimma University, Jimma, Ethiopia
Pets especially dogs are the most common and first domesticated companion animals throughout the world including Ethiopia. In developing countries the health status of the pets are neglected. However, potential hazards are associated with pet ownership; thus, the objectives of the study were to determine the prevalence of important zoonotic gastrointestinal helminthes infection in dogs and their owners as well as risk of environmental egg contamination and major associated factors in Hosanna, Ethiopia. Cross sectional study designs were employed (feces & stool sample from dogs and dog owners, soil samples and questionnaires data were collected) & statistical analysis were done using SPSS version 16 software. Based on coproscopy examination results; the overall prevalence of helminth infection in dogs were 71.6% (n=187/261). Species of parasites identified were: Ancylostoma caninum (49%) followed by Toxocara canis (34%), Toxocara leonine (7.2%), Taenia species (4.2%), Strongyloides stercoralis (2.6%) and Trichuris vulpis (1.9%). Prevalence of intestinal helminth among human were found 17.62% (95% CI: 13.20-22.79). Hookworm species (6.5%) followed by Ascaris (4.6%), H. nana (2.7%), S. stercoralis (1.5%), Taenia species (1.5%) and H. diminatus (0.8%) were identified in humans. The environmental egg contamination status were observed in five sites with helminthes egg. Trichuris, T. canis, Ancylostoma, A. lumbricoides, S. stercoralis and Taenia species eggs were the identified ones. The major risk factors for the spread and zoonotic transmissions of parasites were lack of treatment for dog (prevalence: 81.2%, P value: 0.000 and OR (95%CI), 6 (7.1-35)) and poor awareness on transmissible helminth intestinal parasites of dog (prevalence: 76.5% P value: 0.002 and OR (95%CI):2.5 (1.36-4.4)). In conclusion, this study revealed that the overall prevalence of intestinal helminthes were abundant among dogs, humans and soil sample. Therefore, de-worming of dog, community awareness creation, one-health approached surveillance strategies and further researches should be conducted.
Intestinal Parasites in Dogs and Humans, Environmental Egg Contamination and Risk of Human Infection with Zoonotic Helminth Parasites from Dog in Hosanna Town, International Journal of Biomedical Materials Research.
Vol. 7, No. 1,
2019, pp. 24-36.
Kuma, G. S. and Smith, H., Pets, Poop and Parasites. Microbiology today, (2000). 27: p. 84-86.
Smith, A. and Whitfield, Y., Household Pets and Zoonoses. In Canada, National Collaborating Centre for Environmental Health (2012).
Patricia, Y. R. and Bruno, B. C., Hedgehog Zoonoses University of California, Davis, Davis, California, USA. Emerging Infectious Diseases, (2005). 11: p. 1.
Elmore, A. S., Jones, L. J., Conrad, A. P., Patton, S., Lindsay, S. D and Dubey, P. J., Toxoplasma gondii: epidemiology, feline clinical aspects, and prevention, USA.. Trends in Parasitology, (2010).
Ballweber, R. L., Xiao, L., Bowman, D. D., Kahn, G. and Cama, A. V., Giardiasis in dogs and cats: update on epidemiology and public health significance. Trends Parasitology, (2010). 26: p. 180-189.
Won, K. Y., Deanna, K-M, Schantz, P. M. and Jones, J. L., National Seroprevalence and Risk Factors for Zoonotic Toxocara spp. Infection Amercan Jornal of Tropical Mededicen and Hygine, (2008). 79(4): p. 552-557.
Landmann, J. K. and P. Prociv, Experimental human infection with the dog hookworm, Ancylostoma caninum. The Medical Journal of Australia, (2003). 178: p. 69-71.
Traub, R. J., Robertson, I. D., Irwin, P., Mencke, N., and Thompson, R. C., The role of dogs in transmission of gastrointestinal parasites in a remote tea-growing community in northeastern India. American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, (2002). 67(5): p. 539-45.
Weese, S. J., Peregrine, S. A., Anderson, C. E. M. and Fulford, B. M., Companion Animal Zoonoses. Parasitic Diseases. Blackwell Publishing Ltd.. (2011).
Ugbomoiko, S. U., Ariz, L. and Heukelbach, J., Parasites of importance for human health in Nigerian dogs: high prevalence and limited knowledge of pet owners, Nigeria. BMC Veterinary Research, (2008): p. 4:49.
Degefu, H., Tefera, A. and Yohannes, M., Zoonotic helminth parasites in faecal samples of household dogs in Jimma Town, Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, (2011). 3(4): p. 138-143.
Habluetzel, A., Traldi, G., Ruggieri, S., Attili, A. R., Scuppa, P., Marchetti, R., Menghini, G. and Esposito, F., An estimation of Toxocara canis prevalence in dogs, environmental egg contamination and risk of human infection in the Marche region of Italy. Veterinary Parasitology, (2003). 113: p. 243-252.
Malgor, R., Oku, Y., Gallardo, R, and Yarzabal, I., High prevalence of Ancylostoma species infection in dogs associated with endemic focus of human cutaneous larva migrans in Tacuaremba Uruguay. Parasite, (1996). 3: p 131-134.
Endrias, Z., Yohannes, S. and Berhanu, M., Prevalence of helminth parasites of dogs and owners awareness about zoonotic parasites in Ambo town, Central Ethiopia. Ethiopia Veterinarians Jornal, (2010). 14(2): p. 17-30.
Schantz, P. M., Zoonotic ascarids and hookworms: The role for veterinarians in preventing human disease. Compendium on continuing education for the practicing veterinarian. (2002). 24(1): p. 47-52.
Legesse, Y. B., Preliminary observational study on captive civet cats (Civettictis civetta) in western Ethiopia. DVM thesis in Addis Abebe University, collage of veterinary medicine. (2001).
Yacob, H. T., Ayele, T., Fikru, R. and Basu, A., Gastrointestinal nematodes in dogs from Debre Zeit. Ethiopian veterinary Parasitologe, (2007). 148: p. 144-148.
Jones, O., Kebede, N., Kassa, T., Tilahun, G. and Macias, C., Prevalence of dog gastrointestinal parasites and risk perception of zoonotic infection by dog owners in Wondo Genet, Southern Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, (2011). 3(11): p. 550-555.
HTAO, Hosanna town agricultural office annual reports of animal’s population found in the town. (2014).
Tile, D., The welfare of working equines and their socio economic dimension in Hosanna, southern Ethiopia. M. Sc thesis, Jimma University (2012).
Macpherson, C. N. L., Meslin, F. X., Wandeler, A. I., Dogs, Zoonoses and Public Health. CAB International, Wallingford, (2000b): p. 382.
Cisneros-Jimenez, B. E. a R.-M., C., Helminthes and Sanitation. Communicating Current Research and Educational Topics and Trends in Applied Microbiology. A. Méndez-Vilas (Ed.), México. (2007).
Thrusfield, M. V. p., Veterinary Epidemiology. 3rd Edn., Blackwell Science, Oxford, London. (2005): p. 234-238.
Alemu, A., Atnafu, A., Addis, Z., Shiferaw, Y., Teklu, T., Mathewos, B., Birhan, W., Gebretsadik, S. and Gelaw, B., Soil transmitted helminths and schistosoma mansoni infections among school children in zarima town, northwest Ethiopia. BMC Infectious Diseases, (2011): p. 11:189.
Soulsby, E. L. J., Helminths, Arthropodes and Protozoa of Domestic Animals. 7th edition. The English Language Book Society and Bailliere Tindall, London. (1982): p. 809.
Urquhart, G. M., Armour, J., Duncan, J. L., Dunn, J. M. and Jennings, J. W., Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd edition. Longman Scientific and Technical, Burnt Mill, Harlow, UK. (1987): p. 238.
Thienpoint, D., Rochette, F. and Vanporijs, O. F. J., Diagnosing Helmnthiasis by Coprological samples. 2nd edition. Janson Research foundation. Beerse, Belgium. (1998).
Taylor, M. H., Coop, R. L. and Wall, K. L., Veterinary Parasitology. 3rd edition. Black well publishing, UK. (2007).
Dado, D., Izquierdo, F., Vera, O., Montoya, A., Mateo, M., Fenoy, S., Galva´n, A. L., Garcı´a, S., Garcı´ a, A., Ara´nguez, E., Lo´ pez, L., del A´guila, C. and Miro, G., Detection of Zoonotic Intestinal Parasites in Public Parks of Spain. Potential Epidemiological Role of Microsporidia Zoonoses and Public Health, (2011). 59: p. 23-28.
Angulo-Madero, R., guila, C. A., Puente, de la. and Guille´n-Llera, J. L., Contaminacio´n de suelos de parques pu´ blicos por Toxocara canis. Rev. Iber. Parasitol. Extraordinario. (1987). 165-171.
WHO, Helminth control in school age children: a guide for managers of control programmes - 2nd editions. (2011).
Senlik, B., Cirak, V. Y. and Karabacak, A., Intestinal nematode infections in Turkish military dogs with special reference to Toxocara canis. Journal of Helminthol., (2006). 80: p. 299-303.
Ugochukwu, E. I., and Ejimadu, K. N., Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminths of dogs in Calabar Nigeria. International Journal of Zoonoses, (1985). 12: p. 214-218.
Paulos, D., Addis, M., Fromsa, A. and Mekibib, B., Studies on the prevalence of gastrointestinal helminthes of dogs and owners awareness about zoonotic dog parasites in Hawassa Town, Ethiopia. Journal of Public Health and Epidemiology, (2012). 4(8): p. 205-209.
Maria, F., Fontanarrosa, D. V., Julia, B. and Diego, E., An epidemiological study of gastrointestinal parasites of dogs from Southern Greater Buenos Aires (Argentina): Age, gender, breed, mixed infections, and seasonal and spatial patterns. Veterinary Parasitology, (2006). 136: p. 283-296.
Fok, E., Szatmri, V., Busk, K. and Rozgonyi, F., Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs in some urban and rural areas of Hungary. Vet. Quart., (2001). 23: p. 96-98.
Anene, B. M., Nnaji, T. O. and Chime, A. B., Intestinal parasitic infections of dogs in the Nsukka area of the Enugu State, Nigeria. Preventive Veterinery Medicine, (1996). 27: p. 89 94.
Snow, K. R., Ball, S. J. and Bewick, J. A., “Prevalence of Toxocara species eggs in the soil of five east London parks.”. Veterinary Record, (1987). 120(3): p. 66-67.
Overgaauw, P. A., Prevalence of intestinal nematodes of dogs and cats in The Netherlands. Vet. Quart., (1997). 19: p. 14-17.
Claerebout, E. S., Casaert, A. C., Dalemans, N. D. and Wilde, L., Giardia and other intestinal parasites in different dog populations in Northern Belgium. Veterinary Parasitology, (2009). 161: p. 41-46.
Wolf, A. a. W., I. P., Human Toxocariasis and direct contact with dogs. Veterinary Records, (2003). 151: p. 419-422.
Katagiri, S., and Oliveral-Sequeeria, T. C. G., Prevalence of Dog intestinal parasites and risk Perception of zoonotic infection by dog owners in Sao Paulo state, Brazil. Zoonoses and public health, (2008). 55: p. 406-413.
Oliveira-Sequeira, T. C., Amarante, A. F., Ferrari, T. B. and Nunes, L. C., Prevalence of intestinal parasites in dogs from Sao Paulo State, Brazil. Veterinary Parasitology, (2002). 103: p. 19-27.
Swai, E. S., Kaaya, E. J., Mshanga, D. A. and Mbise, E. W., A Survey on Gastro-Intestinal Parasites of Non-Descript Dogs in and Around Arusha Municipality, Tanzania. International Journal of Animal Veterinary Adv., (2010). 3: p. 63-67.
Burke, T. M. a. R., E. L., Prenatal and lactational transmission of Toxocara canis and Ancylostoma caninum: experimental infection of the bitch before pregnancy. International Journal for Parasitology, (1985). 15: p. 71-75.
Sloss, M. W., Kemp, R. L., Zajac, A. M., Veterinary Clinical Parasitology, 6th edition, Iowa State University Press, Iowa. (1994).
Tesfa-Michael, T., and Teklemariam, A., Intestinal helminthic infecton in Lake Zway Isands, central Ethiopia. Ethiopian Medical Journal, (1983): p. 21: 149.
Assefa, T., Woldemicael, T. and Dejene, A., Intestinal parasitism among students in three localites in South Wello, Ethiopia. Ethiopian Journal of Health Division, (1998). 12: p. 231-235.
Dejenie, T. and Petros, B., Irrigation Practices and Intestinal Helminth Infections in Southern and Central Zones of Tigray. Ethiopian Journal of Health Division, (2009). 23(1).
Kebede, N., Mitiku, A. and Tilahun, G., Hydatidosis of slaughtered animals in Bahir Dar Abattoir, Northwestern Ethiopia. Tropical Animal Health and Prodroduction, (2009). 4: p. 43.
Caumes, E., It’s time to distinguish the sign “creeping eruption” from the syndrome “cutaneous larva migrans”. Dermatology, (2006). 213(3): p. 179-181, 1018-8665.
Ghadirian, E., Viens, P., Strykowski, H. and Dubreuil, F., Epidemiology of toxocariasis in the Montreal area. Prevalence of Toxocara and other helminth ova in dogs and soil. Canadian Journal of Public Health, (1976). 67(6): p. 495-498.
Dubin, S., Segall, S. and Martindale, J., Contamination of soil in two city parks with canine nematode ova including toxocara canis; a preliminary study American Journal of Public Health, (1975). 65(11): p. 1242-1245.
Mazgajska, H., Eggs of Toxocara species in the environment and their public health implications. Journal of Helminthology, (2001). 75: p. 147 - 151.
Barriga, O. O., Rational control of canine toxocariasis by the veterinary practitioner. Journal of American Veterinary Association, (1991). 198: p. 216 - 21.
Bugg, R. J., Robertson, I. D., Elliot, A. D. and Thompson, R. C. A., Gastrointestinal parasites of urban dogs in Perth, Australia. Veterinary Journal, (1999). 157: p. 295-301.