Biomedical Sciences

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

The Roles of Echocardiography in Teaching of Cardiovascular Physiology at Pre-Clinical Level of Undergraduate Medical Education

Cardiovascular physiology is a foundational basic medical sciences course essential for safe clinical practice. Teaching and learning physiology are done traditionally using didactic lectures and practical sessions. However, the world is becoming tech-savvy and echocardiography is a critical player in the evaluation of cardiac physiology and pathology. This important tool is gradually gaining recognition as a useful tool for learning at the undergraduate level. This review aimed to provide evidence-based summaries that could guide and aid the incorporation of echocardiography into the teaching of cardiovascular structure and function among undergraduate medical students in Nigeria. This is a narrative review. Relevant literature was sought with the aid of academic databases and search engines using keywords. Appropriate information on the use of echocardiography for teaching cardiovascular to undergraduates within and outside Nigeria was synthesized and summarized taking cognizance of their relevance and applications. Evidence showed that in developed countries, integration of echocardiography into cardiovascular physiology education has been done and this was associated with a better learning experience and early formation of lifelong knowledge in the use of point-of-care ultrasound but data is sparse on this aspect of medical education in Nigeria. In conclusion, echocardiography is relevant, accessible, and applicable to teaching cardiovascular physiology at basic medical sciences faculty. Integration of echocardiography into the curriculum of the medical undergraduate in Nigeria is practicable.

Echocardiography, Cardiac, Structure, Function, Teaching, Undergraduates

APA Style

Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Busayo Onafowoke Oguntola, Oluwadare Ogunlade. (2023). The Roles of Echocardiography in Teaching of Cardiovascular Physiology at Pre-Clinical Level of Undergraduate Medical Education. Biomedical Sciences, 9(3), 73-77.

ACS Style

Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi; Busayo Onafowoke Oguntola; Oluwadare Ogunlade. The Roles of Echocardiography in Teaching of Cardiovascular Physiology at Pre-Clinical Level of Undergraduate Medical Education. Biomed. Sci. 2023, 9(3), 73-77. doi: 10.11648/

AMA Style

Suraj Adefabi Ogunyemi, Busayo Onafowoke Oguntola, Oluwadare Ogunlade. The Roles of Echocardiography in Teaching of Cardiovascular Physiology at Pre-Clinical Level of Undergraduate Medical Education. Biomed Sci. 2023;9(3):73-77. doi: 10.11648/

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Shehata, M. S. A, Eladl, M. A., Alhuarrat, M. A. D., & Elmoselhi, A. B. (2022). Echocardiography is an important tool for teaching and learning in the preclinical phase of the medical school curriculum. Advances in Biomedical and Health Sciences, 1 (2), 109.
2. Ribaric, S., & Kordaš, M. (2011). Teaching cardiovascular physiology with equivalent electronic circuits in a practically oriented teaching module. Advances in Physiology Education, 35 (2), 149-160.
3. Lufler, R. S., Zumwalt, A. C., Romney, C. A., & Hoagland, T. M. (2012). Effect of visual–spatial ability on medical students' performance in a gross anatomy course. Anatomical sciences education, 5 (1), 3-9.
4. Aydin, M., YILMAZ, M., & ŞEKER, M. (2020). Evaluation of the relationship between spatial abilities and anatomy learning. Anatomy, 14 (2), 139-144.
5. Bell, F E., 3rd, Wilson, L. B., & Hoppmann, R. A. (2015). Using ultrasound to teach medical students cardiac physiology. Advances in physiology education, 39 (4), 392–396.
6. Johri, A. M., Durbin, J., Newbigging, J., Tanzola, R., Chow, R., De, S., & Tam, J. (2018). Cardiac Point-of-Care Ultrasound: State-of-the-Art in Medical School Education. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography, 31 (7), 749-760.
7. Torabi, A. J., Feigenbaum, H., & Bateman, P. V. (2021). Introducing echocardiography to medical students: A novel echocardiography E-Learning experience. Echocardiography, 38 (4), 549-554.
8. Dieden, A., Carlson, E., & Gudmundsson, P. (2019). Learning echocardiography-what are the challenges and what may favor learning? A qualitative study. BMC Medical Education, 19, 1-9.
9. Lane N, Lahham S, Joseph L, Bahner DP, Fox JC. (2015) Ultrasound in medical education: listening to the echoes of the past to shape a vision for the future. Eur J Trauma Emerg Surg. 41 (5): 461-467. doi 10.1007/s00068-015-0535-7.
10. Brunner, M., Moeslinger, T., & Spieckermann, P. G. (1995). Echocardiography for teaching cardiac physiology in practical student courses. Advances in Physiology Education, 268 (6), S2.
11. Hammoudi, N., Arangalage, D., Boubrit, L., Renaud, M. C., Isnard, R., Collet, J. P.,... & Duguet, A. (2013). Ultrasound-based teaching of cardiac anatomy and physiology to undergraduate medical students. Archives of cardiovascular diseases, 106 (10), 487-491.
12. Kondrashova, T., Sexton, W. L., Baer, R. W., & Kondrashov, P. (2015). Integration of didactic knowledge with procedural skill: learning cardiac electrophysiology and electrocardiography using ultrasound. Medical Science Educator, 25, 141-147.
13. Roe, S. M., Tansey, E. A., & Johnson, C. D. (2022). Ultrasound imaging in teaching cardiovascular physiology: disruption and challenge to foster learning. Advances in Physiology Education, 46 (4), 706-713.
14. Galusko, V., Khanji, M. Y., Bodger, O., Weston, C., Chambers, J., & Ionescu, A. (2017). Hand-held ultrasound scanners in medical education: a systematic review. Journal of Cardiovascular Ultrasound, 25 (3), 75-83. doi: 10.4250/jcu.2017.25.3.75.
15. Hoppmann, R. A., Mladenovic, J., Melniker, L., Badea, R., Blaivas, M., Montorfano, M.,... & Mustafa, H. (2022). International consensus conference recommendations on ultrasound education for undergraduate medical students. The Ultrasound Journal, 14 (1), 31. doi 10.1186/s13089-022-00279-1.
16. Mullen, A., Kim, B., Puglisi, J., & Mason, N. L. (2018). An economical strategy for early medical education in ultrasound. BMC Medical Education, 18 (1), 1-8.
17. Otto, C. M. (2007). The practice of clinical echocardiography. Elsevier Health Sciences.
18. Harkness, A., Ring, L., Augustine, D. X., Oxborough, D., Robinson, S., & Sharma, V. (2020). Normal reference intervals for cardiac dimensions and function for use in echocardiographic practice: a guideline from the British Society of Echocardiography. Echo research and practice, 7 (1), G1-G18.
19. Zamzmi, G., Rajaraman, S., Hsu, L. Y., Sachdev, V., & Antani, S. (2022). Real-time echocardiography image analysis and quantification of cardiac indices. Medical image analysis, 80, 102438.
20. Little WC (2004). Assessment of normal and abnormal cardiac function. In: Braunwald E, Zipes DP, Libby P, editors. Heart disease: a textbook of cardiovascular medicine. 6th edition. Philadelphia: W. B. Saunders Company. p. 479–502.
21. Oh, J. K., Appleton, C. P., Hatle, L. K., Nishimura, R. A., Seward, J. B., & Tajik, A. J. (1997). The noninvasive assessment of left ventricular diastolic function with two-dimensional and Doppler echocardiography. Journal of the American Society of Echocardiography: official publication of the American Society of Echocardiography, 10 (3), 246–270.
22. Benjamin, E. J., Levy, D., Anderson, K. M., Wolf, P. A., Plehn, J. F., Evans, J. C., Comai, K., Fuller, D. L., & Sutton, M. S. (1992). Determinants of Doppler indexes of left ventricular diastolic function in normal subjects (the Framingham Heart Study). The American journal of cardiology, 70 (4), 508–515.
23. Klaeboe, L. G., & Edvardsen, T. (2019). Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular systolic function. Journal of echocardiography, 17, 10-16.