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Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Development of Gut Microbiota with Immune System in Newborn Infants

Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) constitute a significant and intriguing component of human milk, ranking as the third most abundant solid constituent following lactose and lipids. Meanwhile, gut microbiota encompasses an array of microorganisms, spanning bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses, residing within the digestive tract. The intricate interplay among human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), gut microbiota, and the immune system holds substantial implications for the initial developmental stages of newborns. This comprehensive review aimed to delve into the multifaceted role of HMOs in molding gut microbiota and their profound contribution to the maturation of the immune system in neonates. By conducting a meticulous systematic review of pertinent literature, this study explored the intricate interrelationships among HMOs, gut microbiota, and the immune system in newborn infants. The review analyzed a substantial corpus of recently published original research articles and comprehensive review papers. Google Scholar, PubMed, and SCOPUS served as robust and dependable sources for data acquisition. Besides these, some other reliable sources were also used. Through this article, readers will acquire a lucid comprehension of HMOs' pivotal role in shaping gut microbiota dynamics and fostering immune system maturation in neonates. The insights garnered from these interactions hold the promise of steering interventions geared toward optimizing neonatal health outcomes. Nonetheless, further research is imperative to unveil specific underlying mechanisms and potential therapeutic avenues.

Human Milk, Oligosaccharides, HMOs, Neonatal Immunity, Gut Microbiota, Digestive Tract

APA Style

Sanat Kumar Barua, Jagadish Chandra Das, Mohammad Maruf-UL-Quader, Zabeen Chowdhury, Salina Haque, et al. (2023). Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Development of Gut Microbiota with Immune System in Newborn Infants. American Journal of Pediatrics, 9(4), 204-209.

ACS Style

Sanat Kumar Barua; Jagadish Chandra Das; Mohammad Maruf-UL-Quader; Zabeen Chowdhury; Salina Haque, et al. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Development of Gut Microbiota with Immune System in Newborn Infants. Am. J. Pediatr. 2023, 9(4), 204-209. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20230904.13

AMA Style

Sanat Kumar Barua, Jagadish Chandra Das, Mohammad Maruf-UL-Quader, Zabeen Chowdhury, Salina Haque, et al. Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Development of Gut Microbiota with Immune System in Newborn Infants. Am J Pediatr. 2023;9(4):204-209. doi: 10.11648/j.ajp.20230904.13

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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