International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications

Submit a Manuscript

Publishing with us to make your research visible to the widest possible audience.

Propose a Special Issue

Building a community of authors and readers to discuss the latest research and develop new ideas.

Research Article |

Consumer Movement Dynamics Within Large Scale, Multi-Level Shopping Mall: An Exploratory Role of Tenant-Mix Strategy

Large-scale multilevel shopping malls are now sprawling phenomena in the urban landscape of the many megalopolises of South-Asian countries. Considered a Westernized influence, such planned, enclosed entities of volumetric building masses with multiple levels often generate excessively deep spaces both horizontally and vertically. Hence, channeling a sufficient flow of shoppers in every space of the mall considering both axes is usually addressed with the planned agglomeration of ample retail variations, mostly known as tenant mix. Taking a case study of such a pioneer modern mall in Dhaka, this paper explores consumers’ movement intensity and pattern in light of its present tenant mix to reveal the extent of its impact. The methodology incorporates identifying the tenant mix of all eight levels with first-hand surveys and data collection of consumer movement through the gate method. The results show that tenant strategy has multiple implications on movement both at each level of the mall as an independent system and vertically as a collective mechanism. It also shows gender and event or festivity-specific movements are also crucial factors to think about tenant mix. But a struggle of consumer visitations in many crucial locations of the mall despite the exquisite mix poses an urge for future research in analyzing movement in relation to the spatial and configurational properties of such mall. This finding can provide insights into the future design and sustainable functionality of such buildings.

Consumer Movement, Multi-Level Shopping Mall, Tenant Mix, Urban Dhaka

Fahmida Nusrat, Nasreen Hossain. (2023). Consumer Movement Dynamics Within Large Scale, Multi-Level Shopping Mall: An Exploratory Role of Tenant-Mix Strategy. International Journal of Architecture, Arts and Applications, 9(4), 120-132.

Copyright © 2023 Authors retain the copyright of this article.
This article is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License ( which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

1. Deb, S., & Mitra, K. (2017). Spatial Logic of Tenant-mix of Shopping Malls. Amity Journal of Operations Management, 2 (2), 44-59.
3. Stake, R. E. (2005). Qualitative case studies. In: N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds.). The SAGE handbook of qualitative research (3rd ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 443–466.
4. Gustafsson, J. (2017). Single case studies vs. multiple case studies: A comparative study.
5. Eysenck, H. J. (1976). Introduction. In H. J. Eysenck (Ed.), Case studies in behaviour therapy. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul.
6. Flyvbjerg, B. (2011). Case study. In: N. K. Denzin and Y. S. Lincoln (eds.). The Sage Handbook of Qualitative Research, 4th ed. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage, pp. 301–316.
7. Durmaz, Y. (2014). The Influence of Cultural Factors on Consumer Buying Behaviour and an Application in Turkey. Global Journal of Management and Business Research (E), 14 (1), 37-44.
8. Deb, S., & Mitra, K. (2018). Visibility, Shopper Characteristics and Navigation: An Integrated Approach in Tenanting Decision Making. International Journal of Architecture, Engineering and Construction, 7 (2), 20-27.
9. Applebaum, W. (1951). Studying Customer Behavior in Retail Stores. Journal of Marketing, 16, 172 - 178.
10. Nasim, S., & Shamshir, M. (2018). Consumer Behavior Towards Shopping Malls: A Systematic Narrative Review. IBT Journal of Business Studies (JBS), Ilma University, Faculty of Management Science, 14 (1), 81-94.
11. Saini, N., & Sharma, K. (2022). Changing Consumer Behavior Towards Emerging Shopping Malls: A Sociological Analysis. International Journal for Multidisciplinary Research (IJFMR), 4 (6), 1-7.
12. Baker, J., Parasuraman, A., Grewal, D., & Voss, G. B. (2002). The Influence of Multiple Store Environment Cues on Perceived Merchandise Value and Patronage Intentions. Journal of Marketing, 66 (2), 120–141.
13. Bellenger, D. N., Robertson, D. H., & Greenberg, B. A. (1977). Shopping Center Patronage Motives. Journal of Retailing, 53 (2), 29-38.
14. Teller, C., & Reutterer, T. (2008). The evolving concept of retail attractiveness: what makes retail agglomerations attractive when customers shop at them? Journal of Retailing and Consumer Services, 15 (3), 127–143.
15. Kim, Y. H., Lee, M. Y., and Kim, Y. K. (2011). A new shopper typology: Utilitarian and hedonic perspectives. Journal of Global Academy of Marketing, 21 (2), 102-113.
16. Michon, R., Chebat, J., & Turley, L. W. (2005). Mall atmospherics: the interaction effects of the mall environment on shopping behaviour. Journal of Business Research, 58, 576 – 583.
17. Patel, V., & Sharma, M. (2009). Consumers’ Motivations to Shop in Shopping Malls: a Study of Indian Shoppers. In Sridhar Samu, Rajiv Vaidyanathan, and Dipankar Chakravarti, Duluth, MN (Eds.), AP - Asia-Pacific Advances in Consumer Research, (Vo. 8, pp. 285-290). Association for Consumer Research.
18. Saruyama, N., & Kishimoto, T. (2015). Distribution of shoppers in multi-layered shopping complex: Estimation of shopper density considering escalators, elevators, stairs. In: Karimi, K., Vaughan, L., Sailer, K., Palaiologou, G., & Bolton, T. (eds), 10th International Space Syntax Symposium (pp. 35: 1-35. 11). Space Syntax Laboratory, The Bartlett School of Architecture, University College London.
19. Abratt, R., Fourie, J. L., & Pitt, L. F. (1985). Tenant mix: The Key to a Successful Shopping Centre. Quarterly Review of Marketing, 20 (1), 19-26.
20. Brown, S. (1993). Mirco-scale retail location: Cinderella or ugly sister? International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 21 (7), 10-19.
21. Greenspan, J. (1987). Solving the Tenant Mix Puzzle in Your Shopping Center. Journal of Property Management, Vol. 52, July/August, pp. 27-31.
22. Kirkup, M., & Rafiq, M. (1994). Managing tenant mix in new shopping centers. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 22 (6), 29–37.
23. Wittig, S. B. (2010, June 23-26). Modeling the tenant mix of a shopping center [Working Paper for Presentation in Doctoral Session]. 17th ERES Conference, Milan, Italy.
24. Yan, C. L. (2013). Tenant Mix Planning in Hong Kong Shopping Centres [Postgraduate thesis, The University of Hong Kong]. The University of Hong Kong (Pokfulam, Hong Kong).
25. Kim, Y., & Lee, S. (2007). A Case Study on the characteristics of the tenant mix in the retail and entertainment mixed-use facilities, Journal of The Korean Regional Development Association, 19 (3), 193-211.
26. Fong, P. (2005). A study of store location patterns inside enclosed shopping environments. In Akkelies van Nes (ed.), Space Syntax 5th International Symposium (Vol. 2, pp. 103-116). Techne Press.
27. Sim, L. L., & Way, C. R. (1989). Tenant Placement in a Singapore Shopping Centre. International Journal of Retailing, 4 (3), 4–16.
28. Brown, S. (1992). Tenant mix, Tenant Placement and Shopper Behaviour in a Planned Shopping Centre. The Services Industries Journal, 12 (3), 384-403.
29. Nevin, J. R., & Houston, M. J. (1980). Image as a Component of Attraction to Intraurban Shopping Areas. Journal of Retailing, 56 (1), 77-93.
30. Eppli, M. J., & Benjamin, J. D. (1994). The Evolution of Shopping Center Research: A Review and Analysis. The Journal of Real Estate Research, 9 (1), 5-32.
31. Hirsch, J., Segerer, M., Klein, K. & Wiegelmann, T. (2016). The analysis of customer density, tenant placement and coupling inside a shopping centre with GIS. Journal of Property Research, 33 (1), 37–63.
32. Tay, S. R., Lau, K. C., & Leung, S. M. (1999). The Determination of Rent in Shopping Centres: Some Evidence from Hong Kong. Journal of Real Estate Literature, 7 (2), pp. 183-196.
33. Pei, T., Liu, Y., Shu, H., Ou, Y., Wang, M., & Xu, L. (2020). What Influences Customer Flows in Shopping Malls: Perspective from Indoor Positioning Data. ISPRS International Journal of Geo-Information, 9 (11), 629. MDPI AG.
34. Widiyani, W. (2018). Shopping behavior in malls. [Unpublished Phd Thesis 1 (Research TU/e / Graduation TU/e), Built Environment]. Technische Universiteit Eindhoven.
35. Reikli, M. (2012). The Key of Success in Shopping Centers: Composing Elements of Shopping Centers and their Strategic Fit [Unpublished Ph. D. dissertation. Corvinus University of Budapest].
36. Levy, M., & Weitz, B. A. (2008). Retailing Management (7th ed.) McGraw-Hill Education.
37. Kramer, A. (2008). Retail Development. (4th ed.) ULI Development Handbook Series. Urban Land Institute.
38. Northen, R. I. (1984). Shopping Centre Development. (1st ed.) Reading: Centre for Advanced Land Use Studies, College of Estate Management.
39. Space Syntax Observation Procedures Manual,
40. Nusrat, F. (2019). Study on the impact of tenant mix on consumer movement behaviour in a shopping mall at Dhaka. [M. Arch. Dissertation. Department of Architecture, Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology]. URL:
41. Hossain, N. (2001). The Socio-Spatial Structure of ‘Spontaneous’ Retail Development in Dhaka City [Unpublished Ph. D. Dissertation]. Faculty of the Built Environment, Bartlett School of Graduate Studies, University College London, UK.